1) Consider the following statements :
1.   Biodiversity is normally greater in the lower latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes.
2.   Along the mountain gradients, biodiversity is normally greater in the lower altitudes as compared to the higher altitudes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a)  1 only
(b)  2 only
(c)  Both 1 and 2
(d)  Neither 1 nor 2

2) The 2004 Tsunami made people realize that mangroves can serve as a reliable safety hedge against coastal calamities. How do mangroves function as a safety hedge ?
(a)  The mangrove swamps separate the human settlements from the sea by a wide zone in which people neither live nor venture out
(b)  The mangroves provide both food and medicines which people are in need of after any natural disaster
(c)  The mangrove trees are tall with dense canopies and serve as an excellent shelter during a cyclone or tsunami
(d)  The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots

3) Salinization occurs when the irrigation water accumulated in the soil evaporates, leaving behind salts and minerals. What are the effects of salinization on the irrigated land ?
(a)  It greatly increases the crop production
(b)  It makes some soils impermeable
(c)  It raises the water table
(d)  It fills the air spaces in the soil with water

4) The "Red Data Books" published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) contain lists of
1.   Endemic plant and animal species present in the biodiversity hotspots.
2.   Threatened plant and animal species.
3.   Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural resources in various countries.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a)  1 and 3
(b)  2 only
(c)  2 and 3
(d)  3 only

5) Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways :
1.   Soil formation.
2.   Prevention of soil erosion
3.   Recycling of waste
4.   Pollination of crops

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a)  1, 2 and 3 only
(b)  2, 3 and 4 only
(c)  1 and 4 only
(d)  1, 2, 3 and 4

6) Which one of the following is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora?
(a)  Biosphere Reserve
(b)  Botanical Garden
(c)  National Park
(d)  Wildlife Sanctuary

7) There is a concern over the increase in harmful algal blooms in the seawaters of India. What could be the causative factors for this phenomenon ?
1.   Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries.
2.   Run-off from the land during the monsoon.
3.   Upwelling in the seas.
 Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a)  1 only
(b)  1 and 2 only
(c)  2 and 3 only
(d)  1, 2 and 3

8) Consider the following :
1.   Photosynthesis
2.   Respiration
3.   Decay of organic matter
4.   Volcanic action

Which of the above add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on Earth ?
(a)  1 and 4 only
(b)  2 and 3 only
(c)  2, 3 and 4 only
(d)  1, 2, 3 and 4

9) A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian animal species. The animal has no predators in that area but its existence is threatened due to the destruction of its habitat. Which one of the following could be that animal ?
(a)  Indian wild buffalo
(b)  Indian wild ass
(c)  Indian wild boar
(d)  Indian gazelle

10) Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition of Western Ghats-Sri Lanka and Indo-Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity :
1.   Species richness
2.   Vegetation density
3.   Endemism
4.   Ethno-botanical importance
5.   Threat perception
6.   Adaptation of flora and fauna to warm and humid conditions

Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context?
(a)  1, 2 and 6
(b)  2, 4 and 6
(c)  1, 3 and 5
(d)  3, 4 and 6

11) Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of
1.   its escape into the outer stratosphere.
2.   the photosynthesis by phytoplankton in the oceans.
3.   the trapping of air in the polar ice caps.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a)  1 and 2
(b)  2 only
(c)  2 and 3
(d)  3 only

12) In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine upwelling zones are important as they increase the marine productivity by bringing the
1.   decomposer microorganisms to the surface.
2.   nutrients to the surface.
3.   bottom-dwelling organisms to the surface.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a)  1 and 2
(b)  2 only
(c)  2 and 3
(d)  3 only

13) Microbial fuel cells are considered a source of sustainable energy. Why ?
1.  They use living organisms as catalysts to generate electricity from certain substrates.
2.   They use a variety of inorganic materials as substrates.
3.   They can be installed in waste water treatment plants to cleanse water and produce electricity.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)  1 only
(b)  2 and 3 only
(c)  1 and 3 only
(d)  1, 2 and 3

14) The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic region has been a cause of concern. What could be the reason for the formation of this hole ?
(a)  Presence of prominent tropospheric turbulence; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons
(b)  Presence of prominent polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons
(c)  Absence of polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of methane and chlorofluorocarbons
(d)  Increased temperature at polar region due to global warming

15) Regarding "carbon credits", which one of the following statements is not correct ?
(a)  The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol
(b)  Carbon credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced greenhouse gases below their emission quota
(c)  The goal of the carbon credit system is to limit the increase of carbon dioxide emission
(d)  Carbon credits are traded at a price fixed from time to time by the United Nations Environment Programme

16) Two important rivers — one with its source in Jharkhand (and known by a different name in Odisha), and another, with its source in Odisha — merge at a place only a short distance from the coast of Bay of Bengal before flowing into the sea. This is an important site of wildlife and biodiversity and a protected area. Which one of the following could be this ?
(a)  Bhitarkanika
(b)  Chandipur-on-sea
(c)  Gopalpur-on-sea
(d)  Simlipal

17) With reference to India, consider the following Central Acts:
1.   Import and Export (Control) Act, 1947
2.   Mining and Mineral Development (Regulation) Act, 1957
3.   Customs Act, 1962
4.   Indian Forest Act, 1927

Which of the above Acts have relevance to/bearing on the biodiversity conservation in the country ?
(a)  1 and 3 only
(b)  2, 3 and 4 only
(c)  1, 2, 3 and 4
(d)  None of the above Acts

18) Consider the following :
1.   Carbon dioxide
2.   Oxides of Nitrogen
3.   Oxides of Sulphur

Which of the above is/are the emission/ emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants?
(a)  1 only
(b)  2 and 3 only
(c)  1 and 3 only
(d)  1, 2 and 3