1:-Which of the following drug combinations is considered unacceptable or ineffective in treating Hypertension ?

A:-Beta-blockers and central adrenergic agents (eg. clonidine)
B:-Calcium channel blockers and thiazide diuretics
C:-Calcium channel blockers and Beta-blockers
D:-RAAS blockers and Calcium channel blockers

Correct Answer:- Option-A

2:-Identify the INCORRECT statement about the biomarkers in pre-eclampsia.

A:-Placental Protein 13 (PP13) is involved in normal placentation
B:-sFlt1 level is increased in severe pre-eclampsia
C:-sFlt1 to PIGF (Placental Growth Factor) ratio can be used in risk stratification in women with suspected pre-eclampsia
D:-Urinary levels of PIGF are significantly higher in women who develop pre-eclampsia

Correct Answer:- Option-D

3:-Mutation in the gene coding for 11 Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 2 will result in

A:-Gordon syndrome
B:-Liddle syndrome
C:-Geller syndrome
D:-Syndrome of Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (SAME)

Correct Answer:- Option-D

4:-Inorganic phosphate is almost exclusively reabsorbed in

A:-Proximal tubule
B:-Loop of Henle
C:-Distal Tubule
D:-Collecting duct

Correct Answer:- Option-A

5:-Which of the following statement about the characteristic of the dialyzer is NOT TRUE ?

A:-KoA of the dialyzer describe its ability to clear solutes
B:-High-efficiency dialyzers have high KoA
C:-High flux dialyzers have low membrane permeability
D:-Ultrafiltration coefficient (KuF) explains the ability of the dialyzer to remove water

Correct Answer:- Option-C

6:-The dialysis nurse wants to neutralize the excess dose of Heparin which he had accidentally given to the patient. What is the dose of Protamine required to neutralize 1000 IU of Heparin ?

A:-1 mg
B:-10 mg
C:-100 mg
D:-1000 mg

Correct Answer:- Option-B

7:-Which of the following is a FALSE statement about Peritoneal dialysis solutions ?

A:-Bicarbonate is the most commonly used buffer in Peritoneal dialysis solutions
B:-Skin rash is the most commonly reported adverse effect on the use of Icodextrin
C:-Dextrose is the osmotic agent used in conventional Peritoneal dialysis solutions
D:-Dual-chamber PD solutions have a low concentration of glucose degradation products

Correct Answer:- Option-A

8:-Identify the WRONG statement about calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

A:-Primary hyperoxaluria results from hepatic enzyme deficiencies
B:-Bariatric surgery is used as a treatment for enteric hyperoxaluria
C:-Oxalobacter formigenes is used as probiotic therapy in oxalate nephrolithiasis
D:-Increase dietary calcium does not necessarily increase the risk of stone formation

Correct Answer:- Option-B

9:-Renin-angiotensin aldosterone axis all statements about this are true EXCEPT

A:-AT1 receptors are responsible for most of the functions of Rennin Angiotensin system
B:-Use of ACE inhibitors during pregnancy has not been associated with congenital defects
C:-Angiotensinogen is converted into Angiotensin 1 and 2 by Angiotensin-converting enzyme
D:-Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone axis is required for normal renal development

Correct Answer:- Option-B

10:-Macula densa is the specialized region in the

A:-Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
B:-Loop of Henle
C:-Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
D:-Collecting duct

Correct Answer:- Option-B